The convergence between wildlife trafficking and other illicit activities is not a Typologies of Convergence new phenomenon. In a 2017 report, the United Nations (UN) Office on Drugs and Crime concluded that wildlife trafficking “takes advantage of vulnerabilities in the legal supply chain...and frequently converges with other forms of serious criminality.”1 Similar findings have been affirmed by the UN General Assembly,2 the Financial Action Task Force,3 INTERPOL,4 scholars of organized crime,5 and civil society.6 Criminals’ reliance on air routes to traffic wildlife exposes the air industry and the public to reputational damage,7 health risks,8 and security threats.9 Aswithotherillicitactivities,wildlifetraffickingexploitslegalinfrastructure.10 This brief explores the drivers, evidence, and implications of instances in which both wildlife trafficking and other illicit activities converge in licit systems.
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